(Photo source: SCMP)
Lesson 2 – Management & Arts Policy
第二課 -管理與藝術政策

Arts Administration & Cultural Management

Administration 行政
Mainly focuses on formulating policies and establishing the objectives of the organization.
Responsible for operations of the organization
Which one is a manager?

Basic Concepts of Management
Manager – individuals in an organization who direct the

Operatives – people who works directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others
(Stephen R. Robbins, Management)
Organisation – a systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purposes
Management – the process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people. Management seeks efficiency and effectiveness.
Efficiency效率- refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs, seeks to minimize resource costs
Effectiveness效益 – refers to goal attainment
(Stephen R. Robbins, Management)

產出 ?
收入 ?

Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra Hong Kong Repertoire Theatre Hong Kong Museum of Art
Hong Kong Arts Festival
香港管弦樂團, 香港話劇團, 香港藝術館, 香港藝術節
Impact Benefits
影响 禆益 ?
Management Functions and Process

Arts Administration
“Arts administrator aims to create an aesthetic contract between an artist and an audience in such a way that the largest possible number of people receive the maximum pleasure and benefit from the art.”
John Pick (1937 – 2020) the founding professor of Europe’s first Department of Arts Policy and Management at City University, London.


“Understand the intentions and objectives of major funders and the society, and operate the assets assigned and delivered to me efficiently. Without operational capabilities, even light assets become burdens. Increasing operational capacity can lighten assets. Commercial business operation capabilities are the keys. “
Dr. David TSUI, Deputy Director, Museum Operations, M+ Museum, former-Executive Director, Hong Kong Dance Company

Introduction to Arts Administration Lesson 2 Shirley Wong 12
Arts Process

Arts Process

Students should achieve a minimum of 70% attendance rate. (attend at least 9 lessons out of 12)
Students are required to submit a written essay with a score of 50 or above.
题目 Topic
Write a written essay analysing an arts/cultural organisation in Hong Kong. They are required to apply the knowledge learnt in class, discuss the challenges and opportunities the institution faces, and provide relevant suggestions on various aspects of institutional development such as arts programming, fundraising, and community engagement.

Introduction to Arts Administration Assignment Briefing – Shirley Wong
Assignment Format and Requirement.

Deadline of Submission – 2/5, 2400. Late submission without acceptable justification will be considered ‘Fail’.
Essay can be written in either English or Chinese Language.
Length – 800-1,000 words (in Chinese), 1,200-1,500 words (in English) (excluding footnotes, charts, references, appendices). Any essay with length outside
the range will receive a lower score. Please include word count in the end of the assignment.
Use 新細明體 for Chinese, Calibri for English and font size should be 12.
Submission in PDF file.
Reference list , use APA referencing style.
Plagiarism is strictly prohibited. All copied text should be acknowledged. It’s suggested to adopt APA Referencing format. Overall part of the assignment that directly
繳交日期:5月2日 24:00以前。未有合理理由而遲交作業, 評核為不合格。
內文字數限制為800-1,000 (中文), 1,200-1,500(
英文) (不包括註腳,圖表,參考索引,附錄)。如作業超出這字數範圍,成績將會被降級。請於作業內列出字數。
作業以 PDF 檔案方式,
嚴禁剽竊抄襲。作業如引用他人文章和參考文獻,必須註明出處, 建議用APA格式。作業内直
quotes from other authors’ articles anIndtroredufectrioenntcoeAsrts Administrat接ion 引Assi用gnm他ent人Bri文efin章g – 和參考文獻的部分不可超過30%。
should not exceed 30%.
Shirley Wong 18
Assessment Criteria
Content – able to address all areas of concerns and apply relevant theories/concepts/frameworks.
Research – Besides publications and internet searching, students are encouraged to obtain first-hand information through field works/interviews.
Analytical ability, logical thinking, ability to generate view points. Presentation – language standard, writing skills, use of visual presentation. Creativity, originality and innovation.
內容— 能夠回應所有關注領域,並應用相關理論/概念和/管理框架管理模型。
研究— 除了文章和互聯網搜索外,鼓勵學生通過實地考察和訪談取得第一手資料。分析能力、邏輯思維、發展觀點的能力。
表達能力 — 語文能力,寫作技巧、運用視覺表達。創造力、原創性和創新性。
Arts/Cultural Organisation
A arts-related government department/office, statutory bodies, such as LCSD, HKADC, WKCD;
NGO, association, society, NGO such as such as Hong Kong Arts Festival Society, International Film Festival;
Performing arts group, such as major public-funded arts group, amateur performing group;
Commercial arts organization/company, such as pop music production company/production house, piano/music company;
Arts venue, including public-run/private-run performing arts venue, museum, arts space, such as PMQ, JCCAC.
others such as arts education institution, arts agency, arts magazine/publisher/website host.
藝術場地,包括公營/私營演藝場地、博物館、藝術空間,如PMQ, JCCAC.等。
其他如藝術教育機構、藝術代理人在, 藝術雜誌/出版商/網站。

Suggested Outline
Introduction – orientate the reader, outline scope and purposes of the essay Definitions of key terms/concepts

Main Body
Background of the organisation – the history and current business/roles, highlight special areas of concerns
Analysis the organisation – current business/achievement/scope of works, organisation structure, resources available, relationship with its stakeholders/environments (such as international/regional/local environment, cultural sector/specific arts form sector)
Identify its strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the environment
組織背景 – 歷史和現今業務/角色,有關该怎該組織的特別關注重點
分析組織- 當前業務/成就/工作範圍、組織結構, 與持份者及環境(例如國際
Main Body
Propose strategies for future development, such as
review of mission/vision/objectives
new/change/deletion/expansion of scope of works/services
organisation/resources re-engineer
develop new business model/revenue models
review programming, upgrade hardware, marketing strategies
improvement of operations…..and others
D新增/變更/刪除/擴大工作及服務範圍 D組織/資源重組
D發展新的商業模式/收入模式 D檢討營銷策略
summarise/supplement arguments and key viewpoints
closing remarks

Word count
Reference List (APA format)
參考文章/資料列表(APA 格式)
Theories, Concepts, Frameworks
Strategic Planning 規劃戰略
SWOT Analysis SWOT 分析
Ecology approach 生態學方法
Blue Ocean Strategy 藍海戰略
Business Model Canvas 商業模式九宮格
Marketing, Positioning, Branding 藝術市場推廣,市場定位及品牌管理等等
Assessment Criteria 評核準則
Content – understanding of and response to the topics and apply relevant theories, conceptual models and frameworks.(30%)
Research – research effort and quality, provision of relevant reference materials and survey results (20%)
Analytical ability, logical thinking, ability to generate ideas and viewpoints. (20%)
Organisation & presentation ability – structure, layout, grammar & writing skills and style, inclusion of ancillary presentations. (20%)
Creativity and originality. (10%)
分析能⼒、邏輯思考、 發展意念和觀點的能⼒。 (20%)
組織和表達能⼒− ⽂章結構、佈局、⽂法和寫作技巧和⾵格,包括輔助演⽰。 (20%)
創新和獨創性。 (10%)

Cultural Policy – Definition
“Cultural Policy should be taken to mean the sum total of the conscious and deliberate usages, action or lack of action in a society, aimed at meeting certain cultural needs through the optimum utilization of all the physical and human resources available to that society at a given time.” Cultural Policy, A Preliminary Study, Paris, UNESCO, 1969.
Historical Development and Key Issues

Late 1940s-early 1960s: public funding to support ‘national cultural heritage’ and counteract consumerism and mass culture

Late 1960s-early 1970s:
democratisation of
access to high arts 1960’s末-70’s初:接觸⾼雅藝術的

Mid-late 1970s: participation and community arts

1980s: cultural industries

creative industries/creative
economy 1990’s/2000’s:

Democratisation of Culture, Cultural Democracy
…;並積極推動各種外展活動和⽂化藝術教育,以培養⺠衆的藝術欣賞能⼒;推廣管弦樂⼂芭蕾舞⼂傳統藝術這些代表精英⽂化的⾼雅藝術等。…批評者認為這個理論⿎吹精英主義,把對⼀般市⺠無意義、陌⽣的藝術形式強加於他們⾝上 。
「⺠主的⽂化」…這個概念在上世紀60⾄80年代較流⾏,最能通過所謂社區藝術得到體驗。社區藝術活動最重要是動員社區成員參與藝術,通過藝術媒介表達⾃我共同創造,以發揮每個⼈的創意,並在此過程中形成社會的意識表達和認同感。<鄭新⽂ 藝術管理概論>
Democratisation of Culture
Cultural Democracy
Ask audience/stakeholders for feedback on ideas
facilitate the ideas of stakeholders, or co-creating together
launch a programme/product and marketing it far and wide
work with stakeholders from the outset to co-create a programme
professional artists to come up with ideas for community programmes
professional artists to work with communities to co-create ideas
defined limits for culture such as visual art, theatre, dance, music etc
a recognition that all of that, and much much more (including gardening, cooking, knitting, fashion etc) is part of culture, even if it isn’t funded.
Sell cheaper tickets to encourage broader audiences
connecting with broader audiences to better understand what they might want
a learning and community team leading on engaging people
making engagement a core organisational value
people as audiences
people as participants

Modified from Cultural Democracy in Practice by 64 Million Artists with Arts Council England, 2018
Cultural and Creative Industries

Creative Nation: Commonwealth cultural policy, October 1994, Australia
The concept of creative industries was first documented in 1994 in Australia … Creative Nation was presented as cultural policy but it was also essentially an economic policy. …The report emphasized culture’s importance to national identity and defined culture more broadly than earlier conceptions, by including film, radio, libraries and other areas.
Creative Industries Mapping Documents 1998, UK
The aim was to raise awareness of the industries, the contribution they made to the economy .….Inclusion criteria for Creative Industries was considered “those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property”.

Arts events藝術活動
Audience 觀眾
Patron 贊助人
Subsidy, Funding 補貼、資金
Arts products藝術產品

Arts events 藝術活動
Audience 觀眾
Patron 贊助人
Subsidy, Funding 補貼、資助
Arts products 藝術產品
Customers 顧客, 消费者
Investor 投資者
Investment, capital 投資、資本
Arm’s Length Principle 一臂之遙
Peer Group Assessment 同儕評核
Originated in the founding of the Arts Council in UK in 1946 (Post-WWII) and mistrust of kind of centralised authority. Arts Council should be a reactive to local initiatives and artists rather than a pro-active organisation.
Arts Councils operates and distribute the funds remain independent of local and central government and free from political influence.
Arm’s length principle, together with artist ‘peer group assessment’

(source: 搜弧,WKCD, SCMP)

動機 Motivations
The ‘Avant Garde’: that there must be some public support of an artist’s work until public taste has moved sufficiently to support it on the open market;
The Cost Disease: that because the production of the art is necessarily labour intensive, inflation in the arts rises more rapidly than in the rest of the economy, and therefore the arts must be especially assisted;
The Economic Impact: in the micro economics of arts industries a loss is made, but in the wider macro-economic picture, the arts generate wealth, therefore they should be invested in.
John Pick & Malcolm Anderton, Arts Administration

Town Planning Leisure activities and community services城市規劃
International status Cultural exchange, cultural tourism
國際地位 文化交流 文化旅遊
”Arts and culture nourish our soul and ignite inspiration, sports and recreation build up physique and foster solidarity, while tourism broadens horizons and strengthens interpersonal bonds. The trio may look different, but they are subtly connected. The chemistry of culture and tourism is obvious, mega sports events could also be mega events for tourists, while many sports events also carry a strong artistic sense. Last but not least, the creative industry interacts, complements and generates sparks with the three domains mentioned above.”
文化藝術滋潤心靈、啟迪思維;體育康樂強身健體、團結勵 志;旅遊見聞增長知識、拓闊胸襟、推進民心相通。三者看 似不同,卻有著微妙的關連,文化旅遊的化學作用顯而易見、體育盛事亦可是旅遊盛事,體育項目不少亦帶著濃厚藝術感。至於創意產業更與上述三個範疇互動、相輔相承,迸發火花。

Mr YEUNG Yun-hung Secretary for Culture, Sports and Tourism

Arts Policy. 藝術政策

Supply Side Demand Side

Education University of Hong Kong CAC3013 – Public Policy in Arts and Culture 2022 Shirley Wong


直接提供和運營 Direct Provision and Operating

Arts Organisations
Artists, Practitioners藝術家/⼯作者

Audience, Participants 觀眾,參與⼤眾

76% 用於康樂及文化事務署直接營運文化服務
7% 資助主要藝術團體(九大)
Major Performing Arts Groups (MPAG) Funded by Culture, Sports & Tourism Bureau
Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra 91,768,141

8% of total arts budget
1 Excluding the funding commitment of $1.01 million for previously approved projects that was estimated to be disbursed in 2021-22 under the Contestable Funding Scheme.

⾹港管弦樂團⾳樂會的平均資助⽔平(subsidy level) 是多少?
A. 40%. B. 60% C. 80%

Education University of Hong Kong CAC3013 – Public Policy in 46
HK Phil Annual Report 2018/19 (2019/20) (2020/21)
收⼊ Income $150M ($164M) ($139M)

政府撥款 Government subvention
⾳樂會及其他表演收⼊ Revenue
捐款及贊助 Donations and sponsors
其他收⼊ Miscellaneous income
開⽀ Expenditure $147M ($149M) ($110M)
⾳樂會開⽀ Concert expenses
($109M) ($84M)
市場推廣開⽀ Marketing expenses
($11M) ($5M)
籌款開⽀ Fundraising expenses
(2M) ($1M)
教育拓展 Education & Extension
($2.6M) (2.6M)

⾏政及⼀般 Adm. and general $24M (24M) ($25M)
⼊場⼈數 Attendance : 161,000*, 200,000, 50 concerts*
(* include free-admission tickets? Free and educational programmes?)
2019/20, 2020/21 affected by CoEvduidcat1io9n UPniavenrsditey omf Hiocng Kong CAC3013 – Public Policy in 47

Subsidy Level資助⽔平
Expenditure – Ticket Income



Government subvention. 政府補助 : Attendance 出席人數 :
$85M 161,000,

200,000 (50 concerts)
Subsidy Per Head.

161,000 = 527/head

200,000 = 425/head

Small & Medium Arts Groups (SMAG)

年度資助 Year Grant ⼀年及三年的資助期
計劃資助 Project Grant
優秀藝團計劃 Eminent Arts Group Scheme
配對資助 Matching Grant
資助觀眾/參與⼤眾 Support to Audience/Participants
(LC Paper No. CB(2)1465/15-16(01) Legislative Council Panel on Home Affairs, 17 May 2016)
⾏政⻑官在2016年施政報告中宣布,”欣賞⾹港”運動期間, 康樂及⽂化事務署免費開放博物館⼀個⽉,反應良好,政府決定恆常免費開放康⽂署指定的博物館常設展覽。…政府當局旨在透過上述免費開放安排,進⼀步推廣⽂化藝術、歷史及科普知識和體驗,以及⿎勵更 多市⺠享⽤博物館服務以拓展觀眾群。
預計每年減少的收⼊ : $1,130萬

Indirect Support/Restraint
許可証/發牌 Licensing
Places of Public Entertainment Ordinance (cap 172) 公眾娛樂場所條例
“Entertainment” includes the following event, activity or thing or any part of any of them –
(a) a concert, opera, ballet, stage performance or other musical, dramatic or theatrical entertainment; (b) a cinematograph or laser projection display;
a circus;
a lecture or story-telling;
an exhibition of any 1 or more of the following, namely, pictures, photographs, books, manuscripts or other documents or other things;
a sporting exhibition or contest;
a bazaar;
[- repealed -] an amusement ride within the meaning of the Amusement Rides (Safety) Ordinance (Cap. 449) or any mechanical device (other than such an amusement ride) which is designed for amusement;
a dance party.
The purpose of the Ordinance is to ensure public order at places of entertainment where safety and members of the public congregate, including fire safety, building safety, electrical equipment, ventilation system, hygiene and crowd management.

(Venues managed by LCSD are exempted from this Ordinance) Introduction to Arts Administration Lesson 2 Shirley
知識產權、著作權 IP, Copyright
Copyright licensing bodies in the local music industry include:
The Composers and Authors Society of Hong Kong (CASH) ⾹港作曲家及作詞家協會
(http://www.cash.org.hk/tc/): represents composers and lyricists; granting licences for public performance of published musical works.
Hong Kong Recording Industry Alliance Limited (HKRIA) ⾹港⾳像聯盟
(http://www.hkria.com/b5/index.aspx) and Phonographic Performance (South East Asia)
Limited ⾹港 ⾳像版權
(PP(SEA)L) (http://www.ppseal.com/zh- hant/): represent different copyright owners of music recordings/record companies; granting licences for playing/showing of sound and audio- visual recordings in public. Depending on the copyright ownership in the sound and audio-visual recordings played, it may be necessary to obtain relevant licences from both bodies at the same time.
審查制度 Censorship

‘Naked Man’ Antony Gormley

Film Censorship Ordinance 電影檢查條例 (The Office for Film, Newspaper and Article Administration (OFNAA) 電影、報刊及物品管理辦事處)
Broadcasting Ordinance 廣播條例 (Communication Authority 通訊事務管理局)
Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance 《淫褻及不雅物品管制條例》 Obscene Articles Tribunal 淫褻物品審裁處 (根據《淫褻及不雅物品管制條例》,任何事物因為淫褻⽽不宜向任何⼈發布,即屬「淫褻」;及任何事物因為不雅⽽不宜向⻘少年發布,即屬「不雅」。⽽「淫褻」及「不雅」包括「暴⼒、腐化及可厭」)
市場政策、競爭監管 Market Regulating & Competition
韓國於 1967 年推出,規定電影院每年放映本地
電影的時間不得少於 146 天(⽬前減少到 73

Hong Kong Cultural Policy
CE Policy Address 施政報告
Set up Culture Commission to formulate the Blueprint for Arts and Culture and Creative Industries Development
Promote Hong Kong’s pop culture to go global through three media of film, TV and streaming platforms
Establish the Mega Arts and Cultural Events Fund to support staging of international arts and cultural events in Hong Kong
Provide financial support to promising and budding small and medium-sized arts groups and artists, and launch internship programmes for students studying arts and cultural programmes in post-secondary institutions
Map out a 10-year development blueprint to build more and expand arts and cultural facilities
Enhance Asia IP Exchange portal to promote copyright trading and development of arts, cultural and creative industries
Legislative Council, Panel on Home Affairs, Culture and Sports

Culture, Sports and Tourism Bureau (established on July 1, 2022)

Programme & Development Committee
Venue Partnership Committee
Advisory Committee on Arts Development
Sub-committee on Arts Education, Funding for Performing Arts, Visual Arts
Museum Advisory Committee
Public Libraries Advisory Committee
Members appointed by Secretary for Home Affairs

Direct supervision Advisory Indirect surpervision
Government Strategies

Set up committee/Re- organising structure
Consultation Study
Research Fund


Activities, festivals

Network Platform Building

Capacity Building, Training


What policies and kinds of supports you’d propose
to develop and promote your favourite artform ?

The End